Application of Cancer Antigen 125 Test in Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis
Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious bacterial infection that attacks the lungs and spread to other organs. Globally, tuberculosis remains one of the leading causes of death and public health problems despite dramatic improvements made in providing access to high-quality TB services.
WHO estimates that about one third of all incident cases of active TB are not properly diagnosed or receive care of poor quality outside of national TB programs. Among diagnosed cases, the delay of the result is often long. Determination of disease activity of pulmonary tuberculosis is important for treatment; but follow-up of the infection activity and response to therapy is not always easy to evaluate. Bacteriological examination of sputum is the gold standard in diagnosis and follow-up of disease; but this procedure takes several weeks to know whether the patient is undergoing successful therapy or not. Identifying TB with diagnosis based on sputum-smear microscopy is effective in diagnosing highly infectious TB (sputum smear-positive TB in a person with a productive cough), but it is less effective in early diagnosis for people with less pronounced symptoms. Culture method is another methods used for diagnosing TB. It is growth-dependent and takes six to eight weeks to produce the result, this long time limit the method to aid intermediate decisions on treatment. Therefore screening for active TB is one of several possible interventions that can improve early detection of all forms of TB.
A cancer antigen125 (CA-125) is the most frequently used biomarker for ovarian cancer detection. Although women with ovarian cancer often have an elevated level of CA 125, it could related to many conditions including malignancy of the lungs, breasts, colon, pancreas, and some non-malign conditions such as endometriosis, hepatic cirrhosis or heart failure pelvic inflammatory disease, or normal menstruation
Journal of Clinical chemistry and Laboratory Medicne